What is Periodontal Disease?

Undoubtedly, dental complications can be frustrating. Apart from causing other health difficulties, dental disorders lower one’s self-esteem. Gum disease is an oral complication that affects the gum’s soft tissues and bones that contribute to teeth support. Typically, the mouth houses a lot of bacteria due to the numerous types of food and other substances that people ingest. Moreover, the mouth has hidden and hard surfaces, which bacteria find the ideal for growth and reproduction. This is the reason health experts recommend that folks should maintain proper oral hygiene. When microorganisms such as bacteria build up on the surfaces and pockets surrounding the teeth, inflammation occurs, and gums are more likely to bleed. During this period, the individual develops a complication known as gingivitis.

Gingivitis is easily treatable, especially when one maintains proper oral hygiene. Untreated gingivitis develops into a periodontal disease that may cause the fall out of teeth due to weak bones and tissues surrounding the teeth. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, periodontal disease and tooth decay are the most prevalent dental complications worldwide. Following reports from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, at least 9% of adults aged between 20 and 70 have gum disease. People with low income are also at risk of having complications due to a lack of finances for professional dental check-up and treatment procedures. The National Institute of Health reveals that the number of men having gum diseases is higher than that of women. The reason behind this is, men rarely go for dental check-ups while women go for more dental check-up visits as they do care about their cosmetic appearance. However, the disease is treatable, even in its most severe state.

The Causes of Periodontal Disease


Health statistics show that smoking is the most common cause of periodontitis. Evidence-based studies reveal that current smokers are more likely to experience alveolar bone loss than non-smokers and former smokers who quit smoking more than one or two years ago. Frequent exposure to tobacco impairs the immune system, thus interfering with the periodontal tissue’s ability to heal as required. A compromised immune system makes it harder to fight off gum infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. Additionally, smoking lowers the chances of successful treatment for people with periodontitis.


Alcohol harms general health. Pure alcohol has no or little damage to oral health. However, the majority of people do not consume pure alcohol. Liquor, beer, champagne, cocktails, and other mixed alcohol drinks have high levels of sugar. Frequent alcohol consumption is harmful to your gums because the high sugar content feeds the bacteria in your mouth. Therefore, you will be more likely to develop stubborn bacterial infections that progressively damage the gum. Besides, alcohol has strong acidic contents that are corrosive, thus destructive to the gums’ delicate tissue.


Untreated diabetes is an approved risk factor for developing gum disease. This is because diabetes leads to blood vessels’ damage, including the ones that nourish the gums and teeth. Damage of the small blood vessels increases gum infections as there is no enough oxygen and nutrients distributed to the gum. A common symptom associated with diabetes is glycemia (elevated blood sugar level). The high sugar level is a factor that contributes periodontitis as it increases bacteria growth and reproduction. The US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey shows a high correlation between diabetes and periodontal complication.

Symptoms of periodontal Disesase

The underlying factor of gum disease is the reproduction and growth of bacteria in your mouth. For that reason, you may detect early symptoms of the dental complication if you notice any signs that may associate with bacterial presence. One of the signs you can never miss is inflammation of the gums. This is the most common symptom because, once the body detects a potential infection, the brain sends signals to activate a